The radio service for the licensing of frequencies in the MHz band. Antenna height above average terrain AAT.
Height of the center of the radiating element of the antenna above the average terrain. Antenna height above sea level. The height of the topmost point of the antenna above mean sea level. Assigned frequency. Center of a frequency band assigned to a station. Assigned frequency band. The frequency band the center of which coincides with the frequency assigned to the station and the width of which equals the necessary bandwidth plus twice the absolute value of the frequency tolerance.
Authorized bandwidth. The frequency band, specified in kilohertz and centered on the carrier frequency containing those frequencies upon which a total of 99 percent of the radiated power appears, extended to include any discrete frequency upon which the power is at least 0. Automobile emergency licensee. Persons regularly engaged in any of the following activities who operate radio stations for transmission of communications required for dispatching repair trucks, tow trucks, or other road service vehicles to disabled vehicles:.
Average terrain. The average elevation of terrain between 3. Base station. A station at a specified site authorized to communicate with mobile stations. Basic trading areas. Carrier frequency.
The frequency of an unmodulated electromagnetic wave. Centralized trunked system. A system in which there is dynamic assignment of communications paths by automatically searching all communications paths in the system and assigning to a user an open communications path within that system.
Channel loading. The number of mobile transmitters authorized to operate on a particular channel within the same service area. Communications zone. The communications zone is determined based on the RSU equipment class specified in section Contention-based protocol.
A protocol that allows multiple users to share the same spectrum by defining the events that must occur when two or more transmitters attempt to simultaneously access the same channel and establishing rules by which a transmitter provides reasonable opportunities for other transmitters to operate.
Such a protocol may consist of procedures for initiating new transmissions, procedures for determining the state of the channel available or unavailableand procedures for managing retransmissions in the event of a busy channel.
Contention-based protocols shall fall into one of two categories:. Control point. Any place from which a transmitter's functions may be controlled.
Control station. An Operational Fixed Stationthe transmissions of which are used to control automatically the emissions or operation of another radio station at a specified location. Conventional radio system. A method of operation in which one or more radio frequency channels are assigned to mobile and base stations but are not employed as a trunked group.
Statelocal government and non-government entities, including utilities, railroads, metropolitan transit systems, pipelines, private ambulances, volunteer fire departments, and not-for-profit organizations that offer emergency road services, providing private internal radio services provided these private internal radio services are used to protect safety of life, health, or property; and are not made commercially available to the public.
Decentralized trunked system. A system which monitors the communications paths within its assigned channels for activity within and outside of the trunked system and transmits only when an available communications path is found.We deliver a variety of interconnection solutions enabling end-to-end service flexibility, security and bandwidth guarantee.
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Featured recommendation Inmarsat FleetBroadband. Data Manager provides a variety of versatile features to make managing data traffic more efficient, including: Web Contact Us Service Desk.The termination rate is one of the three components in the cost of providing telephone service, and the one subject to the most variation.
Historically, each of these steps could be carried out via a separate company, and the toll paid by the originating or in some cases the receiving caller would be split among the three providers. Otherwise, the money received is divided; this is known as intercarrier compensation ICC and is intended to keep the telecommunications system functioning, by having every phone company receive compensation for the use of its network.
To this day this is the system used for most international phone calls. The originating company in the originating country collects the money except for collect callsin which the receiver agrees to paykeeps some for its expenses, pays some to a company which connects the two countries' networks, and pays another charge, the termination charge, to the company or government agency which connects the incoming international call to the subscriber's equipment in the destination country.
While the toll for intra-country domestic calls is often controlled by government regulation, there is no world supervision of international call charges. The destination country company or government agency can charge anything the market will bear for its portion of the call — sometimes this varies depending on the part of the receiving country being called — and the originating company must collect and remit this fee to the destination country.
As ofthere are dramatic differences between countries in the charge demanded by the receiving company for completing terminating the call. To some extent this reflects different costs and efficiencies in different countries, but it is used by some countries as a revenue source. In the past, high termination charges in some countries were used as a payment mechanism for phone sex services.
With the advent of cellular phone servicethe basic structure did not change, but the services use different equipment than that used by the traditional networksthe companies are often different, and everything had to be renegotiated.
There are often multiple providers for the originating and the termination portions of the call, since with cellular systems, in which the signal the call is transmitted between the customer and the central office via digital radio beforeanalog radio rather than copper wire, the cost of setting up a new or competing service is far lower. In the United States, as of the termination charge for cellular calls was eliminated by federal regulation, meaning that as perceived by the consumer, there is no difference between the cost of calling a phone on a cell phone network and a phone on the traditional wired network " land line ".
In most foreign countries this is not the case, and because of the termination charges charged by the mobile networks which complete the calls, which are usually paid by the caller " calling party pays ", although in a few places receiving party paysthe cost of calling a subscriber on a cellular network can be dramatically higher than calling a land line.
In some countries the charges vary depending on which of several competing cellular companies completes the call which company the call recipient subscribes to. For example, a customer of Operator A wishes to call a friend who has an Operator B mobile. Operator A will charge the customer a fee per minute the retail charge for this call. Operator B will charge Operator A a fee for terminating the call on its network. This termination rate therefore forms part of Operator A's cost of providing the call to its customer.
Termination rates may be commercially negotiated or may be regulated. A range of approaches can be used to regulate rates. In LRIC models, the termination costs are calculated for an efficient hypothetical mobile operator.The liberalisation of Bangladesh's telecommunications sector began with small steps in with the issuance of a licence to a private operator for the provision of inter alia cellular mobile services to compete with Bangladesh Telegraph and Telephone Board BTTBthe previous monopoly provider of telecommunications services within Bangladesh.
Significant changes in the number of fixed and mobile services deployed in Bangladesh occurred in the late s and the number of services in operation have subsequently grown exponentially in the past five years. The incentives both from government and public sectors have helped the industry grow and it is now one of the biggest industries in Bangladesh. As a populous country, its huge market has attracted many foreign investors.
The telecom sector in Bangladesh is rapidly emerging. Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission BTRC is the regulatory authority for this sector, overseeing licensing, policy, etc. There are also several SubCodes. Landmarks in the history of telecom industry in Bangladesh . The Interconnection Exchange ICX will receive all calls from the mobile and fixed operators whenever the call is made to other network and will pass it to the destination network if the call is local, and will pass to the IGWs if the call is international.
There are four mobile phone operators in Bangladesh, operating under the names of BanglalinkGrameenphoneRobi and TeleTalk. The number of mobile phone subscribers in Bangladesh as of April was The incumbent BTTB got the same licenses too. The government owned Betar-Radio Bangladesh operates from Dhaka and other local districts.
Currently, the private FM radio channels are very popular. They are trying to attract young people by broadcasting music and news. The operating private radio channels include:. As of there are 23 broadcast television stations in Bangladesh, including the state-run BTV and BTV World, with 20 million television sets in the country. The number of private satellite channels is growing. The first connectivity in Bangladesh with the internet was in In the past few years growth has been rapid.
The government's high internet tariff is impeding the growth of this sector, claim Norwegian owned Telenor. As of more than Internet Service Providers are operating in the country. The number of internet users in Bangladesh as of March is overcompared toin In April Akhtaruzzaman Manju, president of the Internet Service Providers' Association of Bangladesh, told Xinhua that the country's six cell phone operators and Internet Service Providers have so far provided overinternet connections.
A study by the Boston Consulting Group found that the number of Internet subscribers in Bangladesh is likely to reach Though broadband internet access is available, the cost of high speed connection is higher than in other south Asian countries. Broadband internet and e-commerce in Bangladesh is slowly progressing.
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WiMAX service is now available from some internet service providers. The ISPs currently providing broadband services in Bangladesh are:. There are 6 satellite earth stations. Talimabad, Betbunia are two of them.Historically, mobile phones have provided voice call services over a circuit-switched -style network, rather than strictly over an IP packet-switched network. Alternative methods of delivering voice VoIP or other multimedia services have become available on smartphones, but they have not become standardized across the industry.
According to the 3GPP, IMS is not intended to standardize applications, but rather to aid the access of multimedia and voice applications from wireless and wireline terminals, i. From a logical architecture perspective, services need not have their own control functions, as the control layer is a common horizontal layer. However, in implementation this does not necessarily map into greater reduced cost and complexity. Alternative and overlapping technologies for access and provisioning of services across wired and wireless networks include combinations of Generic Access Networksoftswitches and "naked" SIP.
Some operators opposed IMS because it was seen as complex and expensive. The IP multimedia core network subsystem is a collection of different functions, linked by standardized interfaces, which grouped form one IMS administrative network. Each node can also be present multiple times in a single network, for dimensioning, load balancing or organizational issues.
IMS terminals such as mobile phonespersonal digital assistants PDAs and computers can register directly on IMS, even when they are roaming in another network or country the visited network. Fixed access e. It contains the subscription-related information subscriber profilesperforms authentication and authorization of the user, and can provide information about the subscriber's location and IP information.
The IMPU can also be shared with another phone, so that both can be reached with the same identity for example, a single phone-number for an entire family.
An AS can be located in the home network or in an external third-party network. Public Service Identities PSI are identities that identify services, which are hosted by application servers. MRB can be used in two modes:. It includes routing functionality based on telephone numbers. Media Resources are those components that operate on the media plane and are under the control of IMS core functions.
There are two types of next-generation networking interconnection:. An NGN interconnection mode can be direct or indirect. Direct interconnection refers to the interconnection between two network domains without any intermediate network domain.
Indirect interconnection at one layer refers to the interconnection between two network domains with one or more intermediate network domain s acting as transit networks. The intermediate network domain s provide s transit functionality to the two other network domains. Different interconnection modes may be used for carrying service layer signalling and media traffic.
Offline charging is applied to users who pay for their services periodically e. Online chargingalso known as credit-based charging, is used for prepaid services, or real-time credit control of postpaid services.
Both may be applied to the same session. Charging function addresses are addresses distributed to each IMS entities and provide a common location for each entity to send charging information. They only relay call control signalling to and from the PSTN terminal. Session control and handling is done by IMS components. One of the most important features of IMS, that of allowing for a SIP application to be dynamically and differentially based on the user's profile triggered, is implemented as a filter-and-redirect signalling mechanism in the S-CSCF.Virus impact over each market - telecom operators, government agencies and regulators' responses - revised forecasts for the next 5 years.
Analyst: Henry Lancaster. The Democratic Republic of Congo formerly Zaire was under a year dictatorship between and Since then the country has continued to suffer from regional wars among rival groups, resulting in considerable social upheaval. There remain violent conflicts in the eastern part of the country, exacerbated by considerable corruption within the government as well as by ethnic tensions resulting from disputes among and within bordering countries which have spilled over in the DRC itself.
These circumstances have made it difficult for the government to extend its control in these regions. The government can only loosely regulate the sector, and since the national telco SCPT has little capital to invest so much of the investment in infrastructure is from donor countries or from the efforts of foreign particularly Chinese companies and banks.
Given the limited and decrepit condition of fixed-line infrastructure the mobile network operators have become the principal providers of basic telecom services. More than a dozen new licenses were issued in the early years of the century, but many of the licenses failed to launch services and the proliferation of networks, as well as the poor monitoring of spectrum assets, caused frequent problems with spectrum shortages, interference and compatibility issues.
However, the country was finally connected to international bandwidth through the WACS submarine fibre optic cable inwhile SCPT is rolling out a fibre optic national backbone network with support from China. Breakages in the WACS cable have exposed the vulnerability of international bandwidth, which is still limited.
To address this, Liquid Telecom in early was licensed to build and manage the landing station for the Equiano submarine cable. This development will also provide competition in the broadband access market, hitherto a monopoly held by SCPT.
In turn, the additional capacity, stimulated by competition in pricing, should contribute to a reduction in internet pricing for both fixed and mobile internet services.
Mobile operators are keen to develop mobile data services, capitalising on the growth of smartphones usage. BuddeComm notes that the outbreak of the Coronavirus in is having a significant impact on production and supply chains globally.
During the coming year the telecoms sector to various degrees is likely to experience a downturn in mobile device production, while it may also be difficult for network operators to manage workflows when maintaining and upgrading existing infrastructure.
Overall progress towards 5G may be postponed or slowed down in some countries.
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On the consumer side, spending on telecoms services and devices is under pressure from the financial effect of large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes. However, the crucial nature of telecom services, both for general communication as well as a tool for home-working, will offset such pressures.What is INTERCONNECT AGREEMENT? What does INTERCONNECT AGREEMENT mean?
In many markets the net effect should be a steady though reduced increased in subscriber growth. Although it is challenging to predict and interpret the long-term impacts of the crisis as it develops, these have been acknowledged in the industry forecasts contained in this report.
The report also covers the responses of the telecom operators as well as government agencies and regulators as they react to the crisis to ensure that citizens can continue to make optimum use of telecom services.
This can be reflected in subsidy schemes and the promotion of tele-health and tele-education, among other solutions. BuddeComm's strategic business reports contain a combination of both primary and secondary research statistics, analyses written by our senior analysts supported by a network of experts, industry contacts and researchers from around the world as well as our own scenario forecasts.
More than 4, customers from countries utilise BuddeComm Research. Email address. See updated country reports.Over the last twenty years, once-proprietary and technology-specific services have been migrating to the Internet in the form of Voice over Internet Protocol VoIP and digital television. These new services, offered interchangeably over copper, fiber, cable, satellite, and cellular networks, are both better and cheaper than the traditional analog offerings of the incumbent providers and their aging equipment.
Half that many rely on over-the-air antenna television for video content. Such is the nature of disruptive innovation, whose impact across industries continues to accelerate thanks to exponential improvements in digital and other core technologies.
Even in those sectors of the economy that have been the most stable for decades, we are now seeing fundamental business and technical assumptions become obsolete in just a few years. But only if they can adapt—and quickly. To their credit, the former giants of the telephone business saw the threats closing fast in their rearview mirrors and invested billions to accelerate into the future.
To complete the revolution in IP voice, however, we still need to untangle the remnants of profoundly complicated regulatory machinery that for decades carefully controlled the Bell System at the federal and state levels. When local and long distance telephone service operated as a regulated monopoly, for example, it was up to the government to set prices, approve the introduction of new services, ensure interchange, and subsidize access for high-cost rural and low-income consumers.
Some, but not all, of that regulation was retired with the breakup of the monopoly. At the request of some of the remaining wireline companies, the FCC has invited carriers to submit proposals for technical and service experiments that will test how the retirement of the analog network can be completed as quickly as possible, without imposing undue cost on those who still rely on it.
According to company releases, these communities were chosen to maximize a diverse range of factors that need to be tested — including size, density, and location. Conducting limited and carefully managed trials will unearth the remaining engineering and policy obstacles to a smooth transition. We already know, for example, that there are a wide range of technologies attached to the phone network that were built for analog communications — older fax machines, security gate codes, credit card readers and the like.
These must be cataloged, and then adapted or retired.
Emergency services and other public safety systems, of course, must also be tested to ensure they function as well if not better on the all-IP network. The Universal Service Fund, which is paid for by all consumers in fees attached to their phone bills, is already in the process of being reconfigured to deal with the digital reality. Time is of the essence. We need to figure out quickly the optimal path to the overdue end-of-life for our venerable phone system.
Last fall, I testified before the Senate Commerce Committee on the risks of moving too slowly in completing the transition.
3GPP Specification Set: Common IMS
In my testimony, I urged Congress and the FCC to set a firm date for the transition, and to avoid being distracted by parochial interests disguised as consumer protections. Subsidized local and rural carriers, for example, are in no hurry to see the old network go away. With literally hundreds of VoIP providers worldwide many of them offering free digital voice connectionsthe need for close scrutiny of industry participants is greatly diminished. VoIP services are almost entirely unregulated, yet the result of that freedom has been not a diminution of consumer protections but rather its exact opposite.
Regulators, too, must find a more appropriate role for themselves in the all-IP future, more as cheerleaders for market competition than as substitutes for it. The end is nigh, but the path to digital is not obvious.